Nissan Altima 2007-2012 Service Manual: Multiport fuel injection system

System Diagram

System Description

INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNAL CHART

*1: This sensor is not used to control the engine system under normal conditions.

*2: This signal is sent to the ECM via the CAN communication line.

*3: ECM determines the start signal status by the signals of engine speed and battery voltage.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The amount of fuel injected from the fuel injector is determined by the ECM. The ECM controls the length of time the valve remains open (injection pulse duration). The amount of fuel injected is a program value in the ECM memory. The program value is preset by engine operating conditions. These conditions are determined by input signals (for engine speed and intake air) from the crankshaft position sensor (POS), camshaft position sensor (PHASE) and the mass air flow sensor.

VARIOUS FUEL INJECTION INCREASE/DECREASE COMPENSATION

In addition, the amount of fuel injected is compensated to improve engine performance under various operating conditions as listed below.

<Fuel increase> • During warm-up

• When starting the engine

• During acceleration

• Hot-engine operation

• When selector lever position is changed from N to D (CVT models)

• High-load, high-speed operation

<Fuel decrease> • During deceleration

• During high engine speed operation

MIXTURE RATIO FEEDBACK CONTROL (CLOSED LOOP CONTROL)

The mixture ratio feedback system provides the best air-fuel mixture ratio for driveability and emission control.

The three way catalyst (manifold) can better reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions. This system uses A/F sensor 1 in the exhaust manifold to monitor whether the engine operation is rich or lean. The ECM adjusts the injection pulse width according to the sensor voltage signal. For more information about A/F sensor 1, refer to EC-1225, "Description". This maintains the mixture ratio within the range of stoichiometric (ideal air-fuel mixture).

This stage is referred to as the closed loop control condition.

Heated oxygen sensor 2 is located downstream of the three way catalyst (manifold). Even if the switching characteristics of A/F sensor 1 shift, the air-fuel ratio is controlled to stoichiometric by the signal from heated oxygen sensor 2.

• Open Loop Control

The open loop system condition refers to when the ECM detects any of the following conditions. Feedback control stops in order to maintain stabilized fuel combustion.

- Deceleration and acceleration

- High-load, high-speed operation

- Malfunction of A/F sensor 1 or its circuit

- Insufficient activation of A/F sensor 1 at low engine coolant temperature

- High engine coolant temperature

- During warm-up

- After shifting from N to D (CVT models)

- When starting the engine

MIXTURE RATIO SELF-LEARNING CONTROL

The mixture ratio feedback control system monitors the mixture ratio signal transmitted from A/F sensor 1.

This feedback signal is then sent to the ECM. The ECM controls the basic mixture ratio as close to the theoretical mixture ratio as possible. However, the basic mixture ratio is not necessarily controlled as originally

designed. Both manufacturing differences (i.e., mass air flow sensor hot wire) and characteristic changes during operation (i.e., fuel injector clogging) directly affect mixture ratio.

Accordingly, the difference between the basic and theoretical mixture ratios is monitored in this system. This is then computed in terms of “injection pulse duration” to automatically compensate for the difference between the two ratios.

“Fuel trim” refers to the feedback compensation value compared against the basic injection duration. Fuel trim includes “short-term fuel trim” and “long-term fuel trim”.

“Short-term fuel trim” is the short-term fuel compensation used to maintain the mixture ratio at its theoretical value. The signal from A/F sensor 1 indicates whether the mixture ratio is RICH or LEAN compared to the theoretical value. The signal then triggers a reduction in fuel volume if the mixture ratio is rich, and an increase in fuel volume if it is lean.

“Long-term fuel trim” is overall fuel compensation carried out over time to compensate for continual deviation of the “short-term fuel trim” from the central value. Continual deviation will occur due to individual engine differences, wear over time and changes in the usage environment.

FUEL INJECTION TIMING

Two types of systems are used.

• Sequential Multiport Fuel Injection System

Fuel is injected into each cylinder during each engine cycle according to the ignition order. This system is used when the engine is running.

• Simultaneous Multiport Fuel Injection System

Fuel is injected simultaneously into all six cylinders twice each engine cycle. In other words, pulse signals of the same width are simultaneously transmitted from the ECM.

The six injectors will then receive the signals 2 times for each engine cycle.

This system is used when the engine is being started and/or if the fail-safe system (CPU) is operating.

FUEL SHUT-OFF

Fuel to each cylinder is cut off during deceleration, operation of the engine at excessively high speeds or operation of the vehicle at excessively high speeds.

Component Parts Location

1. Power valve actuator 1

2. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 1)

3. Power steering pressure sensor

4. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 2)

5. VIAS control solenoid valves 1 and 2

6. Fuel injector (bank 2)

7. Ignition coil (with power transistor) and spark plug (bank 2)

8. Crankshaft position sensor (POS)

9. Engine coolant temperature sensor

10. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 2)

11. ECM

12. Refrigerant pressure sensor

13. Battery current sensor

14. PNP switch

15. Condenser-2

16. Mass air flow sensor (with intake air temperature sensor)

17. EVAP service port

18. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 1)

19. Electric throttle control actuator

20. Power valve actuator 2

21. EVAP canister purge volume control solenoid valve

22. Ignition coil (with power transistor) and spark plug (bank 1)

23. Knock sensor

1. Mas air flow sensor (with intake air temperature sensor)

2. Air cleaner case

3. Engine coolant temperature sensor

4. EVAP canister purge volume control solenoid valve

5. Power valve actuator 1

6. VIAS control solenoid valve 1

7. VIAS control solenoid valve 2

8. Power valve actuator 2

9. Power steering pressure sensor

10. Tie rod (RH)

11. Power valve actuator 2

12. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 1)

13. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 2)

1. A/F sensor 1 (bank 1)

2. A/F sensor 1 (bank 2)

3. HO2S2 (bank 1) harness connector

4. HO2S2 (bank 2) harness connector (CVT models)

5. Front engine mount

6. HO2S2 (bank 2) harness connector (M/T models)

7. Crankshaft position sensor (POS) (M/T models)

8. Crankshaft position sensor (POS) (CVT models)

1. Electronic controlled engine mount control solenoid valve

2. EVAP control system pressure sensor

3. EVAP canister vent control valve

4. EVAP canister

5. Injector harness connector

6. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 1)

7. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 2)

1. Knock sensor (bank 2)

2. Knock sensor (bank 1)

3. PNP switch (CVT models)

4. PNP switch (M/T models)

5. Battery

6. IPDM E/R

7. ECM

8. Refrigerant pressure sensor (shown with front grill removed)

9. Accelerator pedal

1. ASCD brake switch

2. Stop lamp switch

3. Brake pedal

4. ASCD steering switch

5. ASCD clutch switch (M/T models)

6. Clutch pedal

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